4CE is an international consortium for electronic health record (EHR) data-driven studies of the COVID-19 pandemic. The goal of this effort—led by the i2b2 international academics users group—is to inform doctors, epidemiologists and the public about COVID-19 patients with data acquired through the health care process.

Phase 2.1 Multivariate PheWAS of the Post-acute Sequelae of COVID-19

Results from the multivariate Phenome-wide Association Study (PheWAS) in the post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) using Phase 2.1 have been submitted to medRxiv as a preprint, "Evolving Phenotypes of non-hospitalized Patients that Indicate Long Covid."

Phase 1.1 Temporal Analysis of COVID-19 Clinical Trajectories

Results on temporal changes in COVID-19 clinical trajectories has been submitted to JMIR as a preprint, "International Changes in COVID-19 Clinical Trajectories Across 315 Hospitals and 6 Countries: a 4CE Consortium Study."

Pediatric National Hospitalization Trends

The pediatrics group has recently published a brief report on national trends in hospitalization rates, "National Trends in Disease Activity for COVID-19 Among Children in the US."

Pediatrics Results

A retrospective cohort study to explore international hospitalization trends and key epidemiological and clinical features of children and youth with COVID-19, "International Analysis of Electronic Health Records of Children and Youth Hospitalized With COVID-19 Infection in 6 Countries."

Considerations on Utilizing EHR Data

A viewpoint article on considerations that are crucial for appraising studies utilizing EHR data has been submitted to JMIR, "What Every Reader Should Know About Studies Using Electronic Health Record Data but May Be Afraid to Ask."

Phase 1.1 Neurological Phenotype Analysis Results

Results from neurological phenotype analysis during Phase 1.1 have been submitted to medRxiv as a preprint, "Multinational Prevalence of Neurological Phenotypes in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19."

Phase 1.1 Main Results

Results from Phase 1.1 of data acquisition and analysis have been submitted to medRxiv as a preprint, "International Comparisons of Harmonized Laboratory Value Trajectories to Predict Severe COVID-19: Leveraging the 4CE Collaborative Across 342 Hospitals and 6 Countries: A Retrospective Cohort Study."

Phase 1.1 Severity Definition Results

Results from the severity definition process during Phase 1.1 have been submitted to medRxiv as a preprint, "Validation of a Derived International Patient Severity Phenotype to Support COVID-19 Analytics from Electronic Health Record Data."

Phase 1 Results

Results from the first phase of data acquisition and analysis have been published to npj Digital Medicine, "International Electronic Health Record-Derived COVID-19 Clinical Course Profile: The 4CE Consortium."

Joining the Consortium

If you are interested in joining the 4CE project, please visit the join page.